This message was posted on behalf of Intel Corporation
Thanks for reaching out!
As you can see in https://www.nordicsemi.com/chi/nordic/content_download/2730/34105/file/nRF24L01_Product_Specification_v2_0.pdf, the nRF24L01 communicates through SPI, therefore, on paper it is indeed compatible with the Arduino 101 as it includes this interface.
However, the issue is not knowing whether or not the board and the module can "talk" to each other, the issue is actually making them "talk". According to what you described, what is causing issue right now is the library, it might not be compatible with the Arduino 101.
So, taking this into account, you have a couple of options. The first being that you read all the nRF24L01 and start writing your own code that handles the nRF24L01 from the ground up, this might prove quite challenging but you might be able to create a very effective solution. The second option being that you contact Nordic Semiconductor (http://www.nordicsemi.com/eng/About-us/Contact-us) and try to get help with them in making the library work on the 101.
Also, please note that the Arduino 101 is supported by Arduino.cc, you might want to contact them (https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/ContactUs) in order to see if anyone has been able to make the nRF24L01 work with the 101.
On the other hand questions directly related with the Curie module are supported by us, so, feel free to contact us any time you have a doubt regarding the module itself.
I hope this information helps you,