This message was posted on behalf of Intel Corporation
Thanks for reaching out.
Personally, I don't have too much experience using the Intel Joule with Windows IoT Core. Nevertheless, I was checking the information that you have provided, and I noticed that you are following a guide with Visual Studio 2015, but based on your information you are using Visual Studio 2017. I'm not sure if there is any difference using this version, but this is the guide with Visual Studio 2017: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/visualstudio/debugger/remote-debugging.
I also found the section Remote Debugging Errors and Troubleshooting, which it has information about the error that you are having: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/visualstudio/debugger/error-the-microsoft-visual-studio-remote-debugging-monitor-msvsmon-exe-does-not-appear-to-be-running-on-the-remote-computer.
Having said this, consider that the Intel Joule is compatible with different OSs like Win IoT Core and Ubuntu, but the one that is officially supported by us is the Reference OS. So, the best recommendation that I can give you is to contact Microsoft, they might provide you a better response since Windows IoT Core is owned by Microsoft: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/visualstudio/ide/talk-to-us
Have nice day.