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Thank you for contacting us.
The problem you’re experiencing, where the Arduino sketch stops after the USB cable is disconnected, is a known issue with newer images. This issue, however, didn’t exist on previous images such as “Release 2.1”. I’d suggest you to reflash your Edison to this image and continue developing your project. The link to download Release 2.1 is https://downloadcenter.intel.com/download/24910 .
We’re aware this functionality is very useful to the community and we’ve already reported this to the proper team. You can see a similar discussion here: https://communities.intel.com/thread/99018
Let us know if this is what you were looking for.