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I think that it is not possible, you have to upload the sketch from the IDE to the Edison at least for the first time. Once you have downloaded the sketch in the Edison, you can find it in the directory: /sketch/ and you can manipulate it in the way that you want.
The guide that you shared well you still need the Arduino IDE to watch the logs when it is compiling to create your own makefile, so it is more complicated. As a workaround I recommend you to create C/C++ programs directly in the Edison using the supported libraries.
Have a nice day.