This is a rare situation, we have been able to update the firmware on our SSD 600p with no issues (Using Firmware Update Tool & Intel® Solid-State Drive Toolbox).
In your case, it is clearly an isolated situation that, for some reason, the update was applied. Normally, the SSD should be not even working after a failure while running the firmware update.
If you try to boot the ISO containing the firmware update, the system will check and let you know that the latest firmware is already installed, a reason why there is no way to "force" the installation.
We do suggest to keep testing and checking the SSD, and when a new firmware is released, please apply it using the FUT (Firmware Update Tool).
Let us know if you have any more questions.
I just had this EXACT same thing happen to me, hung at 5% then blue screen. Upon reboot it wouldn't go past bios and didn't recognize the drive. Reboots did nothing Full power down and I got it back. I just finished this build and it had been running for less than 30 mins.
Shows firmware PSF109C Installed now.