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The CPU can toggle in about 2us (if I remember my measurements correctly) if you used memmapped io (which is easy if you use mraa). Of course the CPU doesn't behave very real time. At any time you might see delays of 10ms - 100ms. If you use the preempt_rt patches for the kernel these delays decrease to 1ms or so.
Unfortunately the MCU and Rocket OS is not documented very well. Maybe one day the Edison will be supported one day by the Wind River Helix platform (as promised long ago, but that page seems to have mysteriously disappeared, the forum response here Rocket (Zephyr) vs Viper) so we have acces to the sources.
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Thanks for your interest in the Intel Edison Platform.
I think that you might found this document interesting, it shows each pin toggle speed: MCU Digital Pin On/Off Toggle Speed .
Also you can manage to increase the speed of your GPIO by using the mraa library, but this can only be achieved using the Edison CPU: Exploring Edison - Fast Memory Mapped I/O .
Hope you find this information useful, have a nice day!