I tried following linuxium's instructions Dual booting Ubuntu and Windows on the CS125 Intel Compute Stick (STK1AW32SC) - Linuxium to dual boot Windows 10 x64 and ubuntu on a STK1AW32SC but eventually ran into the low graphics issue xorg - How to fix "The system is running in low-graphics mode" error? - Ask Ubuntu which seems to be a software issue that prevents X windows from loading and has many potential causes.
The Windows 10 x64 went pretty much OK, although the instructions about wiping out all the disk partitions might have been more specific about really wiping every last one out, no matter how scary it looks, and installation and updates might have gone more smoothly if I had known about the recommendation to remove the Micro SD card beforehand.
At this point I could run ubuntu in live DVD (actually live USB) mode, and sound and WiFi worked, although that SanDisk Ultra PLUS microSDXC UHS-1 64 GB card didn't seem to be visible to ubuntu. My bad, as SanDisk 64 GB cards were already called out as not working in ubuntu. On installing ubuntu, I got to the stage where you update and upgrade ubuntu but I didn't see the dialog box at 6:22 of Dual booting on the CS125 Intel Compute Stick (STK1AW32SC) - YouTube and on reboot I got to the low graphics screen. Oh, I guess I got through upgrading of the kernel and the reboot at 6:53 was where things went south. So there are two ways forward that I can imagine: either to figure out what was different in my procedure from linuxium's that worked or to be able to perform diagnostics from the from live DVD mode or recovery console so I could get help to fix the problem.
The first path seems the more promising. Differences were that I had a newer BIOS than the date of the video, having upgraded about two weeks ago, that I used the zesty-desktop-alpha-131216-linuxium.iso - Google Drive linked to on linuxium's web page, and that rufus complained about missing a couple of files that it went out on the internet and downloaded for me. This last difference may be the problem in that if the staging directory with rufus and the ISO already contains the rufus files subdirectory, rufus will silenty use those files, so the ones it downloaded for me may be different from the ones used in the video.
As for the second path, I had an undergraduate over yesterday and even he couldn't figure out how, in recovery console mode, to change the graphics mode so the leftmost 128 pixels didn't get chopped off, connect to internet via the WiFi so all the suggestions about using apt-get could be tried, or to save the output seen on the recovery console so that I could post it back to kind people who were trying to help me.