I borrowed external graphics for tests and... It works!
So the problem is in fact with integrated graphics in CPU.
Ok, the next question is. How to check what I have inside my CPU and what should be to work correctly without external GPU?
This message was posted on behalf of Intel Corporation
The graphics embedded in all 6th gen Core processors is the same even the mobile version: Intel® HD Graphics 530
Now, in regards to your case, the issue could be related to the memories. The 6th gen processors support RAM of 2133MHz.
I suggest you to make a test using motherboard, CPU, 8GB of RAM at 2133MHz and try to install OS.
Note: this motherboard has the option to overclock the processor, turn the option off.