I am not sure why you would want to do this. However, who am I to question. I can and have controlled GPO pins on Raspberry Pi's without any additional libraries, as a matter of fact it can be done from the command line.
I have to suspect that the Edison does the same thing. Please have a look at this information.
Again, I have not tried this yet on my Edison, simply because the work involved is too much IMHO and it is easier to use a library.
This message was posted on behalf of Intel Corporation
MRAA is the easiest and possibly the best way to use the GPIO pins, but if you’re really interested in using the GPIO pins from Linux you can check this http://www.i-programmer.info/programming/hardware/9618-exploring-edison-beyond-mraa-.html. This is a very complete guide on how to use the GPIO pins without MRAA. Check their other material on the Edison, they have some good tutorials.