According to your computer model, your graphics controller does not support Windows 10 and this could be the main issue. I would definitely recommend rolling back to Windows 7. Try restoring Windows, see here for the instructions for your model: VAIO Care - Recovery and Restore : Tutorial : Sony Asia Pacific.
For further reference visit Intel® Core™ i5-2430M Processor (3M Cache, up to 3.00 GHz) Specifications, and Supported Operating Systems for Intel® Graphics Products.
Keep me posted.
I suggest buying W-7 system discs from Sony or the company it sold VAIO to, unless you already own them. Reinstall W-7 from disc. If W-7 complains about licensing, go to Control Panel -> System and Security -> System and look near the bottom for the activation option. Try to activate via the Internet, but if that fails, do it by phone (there will be a list of telephone numbers by country). Call that number. Depending upon many factors, you will either be switched to a machine which will give you a new activation code or you will be transferred to an Indian working for Microsoft who will give you an activation code.
After you reinstall W-7, pay close attention to Windows Updates. First, uncheck "Give me recommended updates the same way I receive important updates." Then before you accept recommended / optional updates, click on it and on "More information" which will bring up an IE browser with the explanation of that update. If it says anything about upgrading your operating system, Windows 10, making the transition to a future Windows release, or telemetry, place the mouse over the update, right-click, and select "Hide update" which will make it go away.