The HDMI to vga adapter you use has an internal chip that converts hdmi to vga and it seems that is not reporting the correct resolution capabilities to your laptop.
I recommend you to use a hdmi to dvi adapter as this adapter doesn't need any chip to convert signals.
You can also try to use this generic driver and see if its working: Download Intel® Beta Graphics Driver for Windows® 10 and Windows 7*/8.1* [15.40]
This is the latest driver and you need to uninstall completely the old driver before installing this one.
Yes it was! I just marked it as the correct answer.
Thanks mr./miss Intel Corporation for following up!