It is my opinion that building a PC starts with selecting a motherboard that supports a socket, memory, video or add-on card, and I/O ports that you want. Once you find a recent or current board, then selection of the processor can begin. Then, select an appropriate power supply.
Regarding the terms you want to know the meaning of, just hover over the term in this processor specification (as an example):
To search for processors for a specific socket, use this: ARK | Processor Feature Filter
Regarding a comparison to AMD, you will need to search other websites for that information. Of course, you know Intel and AMD processors do not use the same socket.
And, there is no "best" processor. There are many processors that will satisfy your needs. Perhaps the processor feature filter above can help you.
Lastly, the i5-4690k is already two generations back. I personally would look for a 6th generation processor supported by a current motherboard. And, I would be inclined to go with an NVidia or AMD/ATI video card as opposed to any onboard graphics.
This message was posted on behalf of Intel Corporation
Great comments from Al Hill, see the link below for more information about Intel® processor: