Bitbanging would be a solution but I think this is not possible using the edison to achive accurate timings, maybe
by programming the MCU.
Another solution is using a multiplexer like 4052 (http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/74HC_HCT4052.pdf).
With this solution you can use differnent moduls, but you must care about the current one...buffers may overflow
while handling another module...
So I think the best solution is to get more serial interfaces by using an FTDI.
There are different ones up to 4 serial channels. You only must include the driver to the kernel.
All channels can be used "parallel", all the buffering stuff is done by the FTDI.
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The suggestion gave by Flo1991 it is a good idea.
You have to consider the speed required for the sensors you will have connected to the board. The GPIOs work at 100ns for a 50MHz clock
Take a look at: http://www.intel.com/content/dam/support/us/en/documents/edison/sb/edisonmodule_hg_331189004.pdf
Currently the libraries available consider the UART available on pins 0 and 1. You would need to create your custom library that emulates the functionality of an UART for other pins.