I've checked the sketch you attached, it uses the HX711.h library. It seems that this library has been written based on the AVR architecture, that's the reason why it works with the Arduino UNO, but when you try to use it with Galileo, it just doesn't work.
I recommend you to try to write your own version of the library so you can use it with your Galileo. Sometimes, a library that works with Arduino UNO doesn't work on Galileo because the architectures are different. You have to port the library in order to be used with the device you want.
In order to port the library, I recommend you to full understand how your sensor works. If you understand it, you will be able to write a library to interface it with Galileo.