RealSense cameras started malfunctioning in Windows builds shortly before 14393, and for a while afterwards until around 15019. There was a period I believe when they worked again, and then they broke again when Microsoft released the Creators Update (15063).
When the camera is not fully functioning, it is treated by Windows as an ordinary RGB webcam, which is why you can use color functions for applications such as Skype video but not depth and IR functions. Intel and Microsoft have been working together on a fix for the problem. Its release status currently remains as "pending" though.
To sum up, your Device Manage drivers are fine and you have tried workarounds on this forum (including the Intel-recommended one by Slothameedes, I assume), and the camera is still not functioning.
If waiting for the Intel-Microsoft fix is not an option and workarounds are not working for you, the final options available may be:
(a) try using the SR300 on a different PC if you have one available, since not all RealSense SR300 users are affected.
(b) if disconnections seem to be at the heart of your issue, purchase a mains-powered USB hub for around $15 and plug the camera into that instead of directly into the PC. Powered hubs have a very high success rate of instantly curing RealSense problems related to camera detection and connection drops. You can find them on a store such as Amazon by searching for 'powered usb 3.0 hub'. Good luck!
I don't have another PC to test on, only this laptop. I'll try getting a USB 3.0 powered hub. I will have it delivered tomorrow so i'll report back then.
I have two colleagues (on another continent) who have no issues using SR300 on Build 15063, so there is definitely some other nonsense going on.
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I can confirm that when the SR300 is plugged in to a powered hub, REGARDLESS if the powered hub is even connected to mains, the SR300 is now able to start up the depth stream successfully each time.
The solution is simply connecting the SR300 to a USB 3.0 hub, powered or not, rather than directly to the USB 3.0 ports on the laptop/PC which is having the issues. I have seen others mentioning this solution as well, and I can confirm it.
As an electronics engineer, my theory is that the decoupled circuitry (using the hub's power distribution and capacitors rather than your built in USB 3.0 controller's circuitry) is able to handle the start-up surge current of the two IR cameras plus the IR laser projector turning on. I wonder if the windows drivers are in the background changing how much current is available at the USB 3.0 ports (these are usually smart, controllable devices with programmable current limits, usually for power saving and safety). And therefore the behaviour of certain Windows builds may be making minor changes to how USB ports are working, causing this issue?
Perhaps Intel can fix this by adding more bulk capacitance on the input power for the SR300?
Your interpretation of the USB port power statuses is a reasonable one, given the number of times that cameras have worked fine for a while and then suddenly stopped working immediately after a Windows update has taken place.
I'll pass a link to your message onto the relevant Intel guy so they can pass it along to the RealSense development team if they wish. Thanks so much for the valuable insights!
Indeed, I think the USB 3.0 controller drivers could be put in debug mode or checking logs for a simple comparison between what happens when it is directly connected and try to start up the Depth stream versus what messages are shown (should all be good ones) when the SR300 is instead connected through a USB 3.0 hub.
would be nice enforce "max power" mode for a selective device ID by default. Obviously when things were working properly, the hardware at the base level can handle the power, but the intelligent systems behind the hub controllers may be triggering faults due to sudden rush currents and their levels or behaviours might change in certain Windows builds.. and probably go unnoticed in the changelogs because who would suspect USB controller drivers??